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Materials and methods

Translation of "la mouche noire" in English

French edition, Les sauteriaux du Sahel, available as Stations de recherche acridienne sur le terrain, series techniques No. Grasshoppers and locusts. A handbook of general acridology. Volume 2. Behaviour, ecology, biogeography, population dynamics. Locust handbook Acknowledgements Introduction 1. What are locusts? Locust and grasshopper distribution Damage and losses caused by locusts 2. Desert Locust-Schistocerca gregaria Anatomy of a locust Life cycle Behaviour in relation to habitat Seasonal movements and breeding areas of desert locust during plagues and recessions Recession periods, outbreaks and the origin of plagues 3.

Other African locusts African migratory locust-Locusts migratoria migratorioides Other subspecies of Locusta migratoria Red locust-Nomadacris septemfasciata Brown locust-Locustana pardalina Tree locusts-Anacridium melanorhodon melanorhodon, Anacridium melanorhodon arabafrum, Anacridium wernerellum, Anacridium aegyptium 4. Sahelian grasshoppers Senegalese grasshopper-Oedaleus senegalensis Sudan plague locust-Aiolopus simulatrix Rice grasshopper-Hieroglyphus daganensis Diabolocatantops axillabis Kraussaria angulifera Cataloipus cymbiferus and cataloipus fuscocoeruleipes Variegated grasshopper-Zonocerus variegates Kraussella amabile and ornithacris cavroisi 5.

Southeast Asian locusts Oriental migratory locust-Locusta migratoria manilensis Javanese grasshopper-Valanga nigricornis Bombay locust-Nomadacris succincta formerly Patanga succincta 6. Locust reporting The aims of a reporting system 7. B DD calculating based on maximum-minimum temperature. The integral calculation based on hours temperature was used to calculate the insect development rate considered the effects of low temperatures in the spring and high temperatures in the summer Fig.

This method has solved the problem of how to set the initial values as we have 24 temperature data each day, it has eliminated the error by the Briere model, Lactin model, and several other popular models [6] , [32] and got an exact solution [17] — [18] , [35]. We have conducted the concept of degree-hours to calculate DD, which is more precise and available in field conditions. In theory, using degree-half an hours or degree-minutes to calcualte DD would be more accurancy. Unfortunately, they need cumbersome sampling processes.

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Then it is better for us to take degree-hours in field studies, because it has simplified the overall calculation process and enhanced the precision of 0. Thus, the integral method could have broad applications in insect forecasting and predicting. The overflow temperature did not accelerate the development rate of locusts Fig.

Empirical DD values are not absolutely constant, even if the feeding environment and all other environmental influences are the same. Environmental influences other than temperature, such as food, population density, and all specifics, influence the number of DD, and, in addition, development rates sometimes deviate slightly from linearity. However, the number of DD to reach maturity is constant to be of biological interest. It implies that the linearity of development rate as a function of temperature is more than a statistical first approximation: it seems a biological property.

Therefore, it is a biological question how linearity of development rate is caused [10]. So we proposed a standard DD calculating method based on studied the biological property of the oriental migratory locust. In the present study, invalid DD i.

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We analyzed the life history of L. Results showed that the overflow DD and ineffective DD for egg-laying was 38 and heat units, respectively Fig. In field, we predicted hatchlings emergence mostly by air temperature as we lacked ground temperature data, so the DD was DD when only used air temperature the dashed line.

Instead, when we used ground temperature the solid line to calcualte DD for eggs, the total DD for migratory locust was heat units based on hours integral calculation. In addition, we predicted hatchlings emergence mostly by air temperature as we lacked ground temperature data in field, so the DD was heat units when only based on air temperature Fig. To further investigate locust voltinism in our growth chamber experiments Table 3 , we recalculated the actual DD in each chamber by the imporved DD model. They could produce 0. Thus, we considered there was no difference between them, because the oriental migratory locusts were unable to breed in BQ, the same as RA, QZ, and QS.

Locusta migratoria migratoria

For the overflow DD in table 6 , they were not revealing the actual values in each location. We have set the hours temperature changes as Fig. It is known that temperature different with latitude moves, i.

Thus, we speculated the overflow DD would be higher than the calculated values in Table 6 , especially in southern China. For applying our model, we need to monitor the hours temperature changes of migratory locust at different locations in future. In this report, we study various characteristics of the temperature response of the migratory locust including overflow temperature and the effective temperature requirements for egg-laying. They are defined as invalid DD which are the key factors that affect the prediction of migratory locust occurrence and result in DD nonlinear increasing with generations arising in field.

Moreover, we propose an integral calculation method to calculate the DD of migratory locust, which also can be used to calculate overflow DD. This metod records h temperature as the basic data to simulate the daily temperature changes and the accuracy is higher than using the daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures in the data simulation. We also introduce the concept of degree-hours, which improved the accuracy of the DD calculation in areas with temperature variations.

Thirdly, to eliminate the calculating error by traditional DD model, we improve it by studying temperature response of the migratory locust and proposing integral calculation method. Then we constructed a new DD model as:. The new model is according with the principle of the traditional DD model, meanwhile it would be more precisely when forecasting the occurrence period of migratory locust.

This method can also be used to predict the occurrence period for other pests. China for their helpful suggestions. Conceived and designed the experiments: ZZ XT. Analyzed the data: XT ZL.

Supplemental Content

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The degree-day DD model is an important tool for forecasting pest phenology and voltinism. Introduction Many mathematical models utilizing heat-summation are widely used in Integrated Pest Management IPM to forecast and predict pest insect phenology and voltinism [1].

Materials and Methods Study organism We studied the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migrotoria manilensis Meyen. Using DD to predict locust voltinism To investigate the relationship between the degree-days DD and voltinism the number of generations that can be produced in a population in one year , we raised the oriental migratory locust in growth cabinets PRXB Download: PPT. Table 1.

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  5. Seven locations in China modeled in this study, and the average heat units degree-days available per growing season at each site, based on an estimated lower thermal threshold for development of Figure 1. The mimicked temperatures in different growth chambers. Effects of temperature on adult egg-laying We tested the effects of temperature on adult egg-laying.

    Different DD calculating methods comparision We compared the accuracy of four different DD calculating methods based on either: 1 the daily mean temperature, 2 max-min temperature [50] , 3 hours mean temperature, or 4 integral calculation of hours temperature, based on the previously calculated lower thermal development threshold of Standard heat units calculation and validation based on the Improved DD model We tested the validity of our calculated DD in the field by recording environmental temperatures and life history of L.

    Results and Discussion Voltinism under different DD When the oriental migratory locusts were reared in seven different growth chambers providing either , , , , , , or DD, the number of complete generations that were produced varied dramatically among the different treatments Table 3. Table 3. Voltinism of L. Mismatch between predicted voltinism and realized voltinism Our laboratory experiment testing seven different temperature treatments found substantial differences between the predicted number of generations and the realized number of generations Table 3. Figure 2. Developmental duration of locust eggs and nymphs at different constant temperatures.

    Figure 3. Relationship between temperature and locust eggs, nymphs, and oocytes developmental rate. Minimum temperature for adult egg-laying To further investigate why the traditional DD model failed to accurately predict locust voltinism in our growth chamber experiments Table 3 , we examined the relationship between egg laying and temperature.

    Table 4. DD based on h temperature integral calculation On April 12, , the h temperature at 5 cm underground in Langfang was as shown in Fig. Figure 4. DD for locusts on April 12, , in Langfang based on the integral calculation method. Figure 5. Overflow DD for locusts on July 9, , in Langfang based on the integral calculation method. Different DD calculating methods comparision To further investigate the accurancy of hours temperature integral calculation, we compared DD calculation by four different methods. Figure 6. DD calculation based on mean, max-min, hours temperature data.

    Table 5. Comparision the different DD calculating methods based on the daily mean, max-min, hours temperature, and hours temperature integral calculation, whether it could describe the accurate time interval about temperature higher than the lower development threshold temperature C and simulate actual temperature variation trends accurately. Improvement of the DD model The overflow temperature did not accelerate the development rate of locusts Fig. Figure 7. Standard DD calculating for locust accomplishing full generations based on life history of L. Validation the improved DD model To further investigate locust voltinism in our growth chamber experiments Table 3 , we recalculated the actual DD in each chamber by the imporved DD model.

    The locust plague

    Table 6. Conclusions In this report, we study various characteristics of the temperature response of the migratory locust including overflow temperature and the effective temperature requirements for egg-laying.

    References 1. Environmental Entomology 1— View Article Google Scholar 2. Simpson CB The codling moth. View Article Google Scholar 3. Ludwig D The effects of temperature on the development of an insect Popillia japonica Newman.